There are various kinds of integrated circuits. These are mainly classified into digital, analog as well as mixed signals. The mixed signal is another method of chip creation which uses both analog as well as digital signals on the same chip.
There can be any number of integrated digital circuits. These can have various logic gates as well as multiplexers and flip-flops. The size of these circuits too are not more than a few square millimeters. This allows for the speed to be increased as well as the dissipation of power to be low. This also helps in decreasing the cost of manufacture in comparison with the integration of board level. These ICS are usually DSPs, microprocessors as well as microcontrollers and they use and work on one and zero signals which are Boolean algebra.
Out of these, the most advanced are the cores like those created by altera . These are used for controlling everything – be it a computer, digital microwave oven or even a cellular phone. There are digital memory chips as well as ASICs which stands for application specific integrated circuits.
There are programmable logic devices as well which are created by Altera. These devices are those that have circuits where the connectivity as well as the functionality is programmable by users. This is not fixed by the manufacturer of the integrated circuit and the same chip can be programmed so that various LSI kind of functions like registers, adders and logic gates can be implemented. These devices which contain such components are known as FPGA which stands for field programmable gate array. This can operate even with speeds of up to 1GHz.
The Digital ICs are again divided into memory chips, logic ICs, serializers/deserializers, level shifters, power management ICs or other kinds of programmable devices. The analog ICs are divided into RF ICs as well as linear ones.