A microcontroller is a small, cheap computer, usually used for sensing input in the real world and controlling device based on that input. Most digital devices you use now have a microcontroller in these any form or another. Microcontrollers are a breeze to use with easy sensors and output devices, and they’re able to communicate with desktops fairly simply too. When you are constructing some form of customized detector or output device, employing an atmel microcontroller is an excellent means to divide the customized part of your job by the part that is best done on a desktop computer. They are also very helpful for if you are designing an easy interactive device that does not want the entire power of a desktop computer, but does have to be smaller or cheaper.
Similar to any other pc, a microcontroller really needs input interfaces to detect actions by an individual, and output interfaces through which it communicates the outcomes of its programs. The hooks sticking from these microcontrollers are the inputs and outputs. Other devices, such as light, heat, or movement sensors, motors, lights, our audio device, are connected to these pins to enable the microcontroller to be sensitive to the entire world and also to express itself.
There are many distinct levels of both microcontrollers and microcontroller systems. Some are extremely small, chip-size device to which you need to join your own electronics. Others are bigger, composed of many interfaces and components for input output signal, ready to plug right to other devices.
Greater level Atmel microcontrollers is going to have a very simple hardware interface to other devices (normally a plug in or a few cables), and also a more straightforward programming language, in any respect. They will also generally be the most costly of microcontrollers, as somebody else has done the job for you. Higher level controllers have to be connected to your personal computer through serial or USB to function. Lower degree microcontrollers will need more work, either concerning hardware alterations (you are going to need to construct your own circuits to port them into other devices), and also concerning programming (you will have to use a lower level programming language such as C or assembler). Nevertheless, lower level chips are typically cheapest and most flexible in relation to what you could make them perform.